43 halftones

Dark Spaces

Montana's Historic Penitentiary at Deer Lodge
By Ellen Baumler
Photographs by J. M. Cooper



The penitentiary at Deer Lodge, established in 1870, was Montana Territory's first federal facility. In 1889 it became a state penal institution and served in that capacity until 1979. Under the direction of the long serving (1893-1921) and controversial warden Frank Conley, prison laborers built most of the buildings that visitors see today. These buildings bear the marks of a violent history: bazooka scars mar the tower where prisoners holed up during the infamous riot of 1959 and an inmate's delicate stenciling oddly adorns the room where the two riot masterminds died.

In a collaborative documentary of the legendary prison, historian Ellen Baumler tells the physical and human tale of the troubled institution whose idyllic setting contrasts so violently with the history it holds. J. M. Cooper's detailed photographs of the prison's interiors and exteriors combine with historic images to illustrate the stories of the people who lived--and sometimes died--within its walls.

Contributor Bios
Ellen Baumler is interpretive historian at the Montana Historical Society and author of Spirit Tailings: Ghost Tales from Virginia City, Butte, and Helena; Beyond Spirit Tailings: Montana's Mysteries, Ghosts, and Haunted Places; and dozens of articles on various topics including violence and prostitution in the American West.
J. M. Cooper is a photographer for the Montana Historical Society and an accomplished documentary photographer whose work is in many private collections.